In Cyprian Norwid’s rich though presumably still not thoroughly read dramatic creativity, Pierścień Wielkiej-Damy (Ring of the Fine Lady) is a striking exception since it allows to discuss the original features of this dramatic work, unfortunately still seen as secondary. The aim of the present study is a presentation of Norwid through the lens of Ring of a Fine Lady as a “multiinterfugural” dramatist, that is such one who employs in his text and through his text references to original figures of Polish-Romantic comedy and drama writing, to bourgeois drama of the Warsaw Positivism, as well as not to a smaller extent to the French in its nature comédie seriéuse. The author of the paper places the greatest interpretive emphasis in this case on Norwid’s references to the Polish Romanticism (especially to the editions of Mickiewicz’s Dziadów część I <Forefathers Part I> and Słowacki’s Fantazy <Fantasius> after the year 1860), as they have not yet been properly expounded. The term “interfigurality” is here understood as a special type of intertextuality, in accordance with the illustrious in this field theory by Wolfgang G. Müller
The paper describes the literary creativity of Władysław Bogusławski (1838–1909), an distinguished theatre critic (theorist) and a deserving literary critic. Bogusławski was the author of prose pieces produced mainly in 1880s. The most interesting of them—six tales and short stories as well as one dramatic sketch—represent female (feminist) discourse, showing sex relations penetratingly and nonstereotypically: in a psychological-customary, social, anthropological, history-cultural and philosophical context, as well as from the ambivalent pro- and antiemancipatory stance. Equally interesting and valuable are two autobiographical reminiscences referring to the writer’s stay in exile in Siberia. Finally, there are two minor tales—parables with a philosophical and ethical message. Bogusławski’s thematically and formally diversified prose is characterised by original compositional solutions and aesthetic erudition (e.g. references to music and painting)
The article refers to Józef Ignacy Kraszewski’s Kopciuszek (Cinderella, 1862), pre-textually based on a fairy tale thread, though realising the pattern of the realist novel about a big city. Monographism, physiologism and thrilling motives link it to the achievements of such Western writers as Victor Hugo, Alexandre Dumas, Honoré de Balzac or Charles Dickens, but in its minute reproduction of the 19th c. Warsaw topography and space anthropology the novel portends Bolesław Prus’ The Doll. In his Cinderella, written in the blink of the Polish January Insurrection, Kraszewski portraits Warsaw bustling with life and easily entering into modernity, while Prus in his novel shows Warsaw constrained by the Russian occupier’s police close surveillance, as if “hypnotised,” easily losing it good pace of the civilizational changes that that have already started.
Even if Cinderella can by no means match the mastery of The Doll, it may be viewed as a contribution to its origin and as an interesting stage in the development of 19th c. Polish novel.
The article presents Sienkiewicz’s images of women from his Listy z podróży do Ameryki (Letters from a Trip to America). It researches Litwos’ statements referring to real and postulated woman behaviours, the social roles attributed to women, and the features which constitute femininity as a social-cultural category. The discourses concerning the differences between sexes and emancipation problems contemporary to Sienkiewicz make a broader context of the presented journalistic observations.
The Pseudonym’s Origin and FamilyTradition
The article presents Janusz Korczak’s private and family connections with the figure and literary creativity of Józef Ignacy Kraszewski. The starting point here is the choice of the pseudonym adopted from one of Kraszewski’s novels entitled Historia o Janaszu Korczaku i pięknej miecznikównie (Janasz Korczak and the Pretty Swordsweeperlady). Contrary to the common opinion, the choice was not accidental as it marked the bonds that linked the future writer with Kraszewski. The ideology of Jewish integration movement the advocates of which were Korczak’s father and his paternal uncle (Józef and Jakub Goldszmit, journalists of “Izraelita”) further added to with ideology which was also supported by Kraszewski. Korczak and Kraszewski’s common places also include the defence of subjective character of emancipation encompassing the commonalty, the Jews, and children
Stanisław Brzozowski’s 18th C. Biographies and Diagnoses in the Novel “Sam wśród ludzi” (“Alone among People”)
The subject of the article are references to the 18th century in Stanisław Brzozowski’s novel Sam wśród ludzi (Alone among People). 18th century exponents in the novel are first and foremost the figures of Marcin Ogieński and priest Klemens Rotuła who in various ways struggle, in the face of the social-political changes that took place at the onset of the Age of Reason, with the fall of their ideals. The aim of the argument is a presentation of the references’ functionalities as well as placing them against the background of Brzozowski’s general creative and world view assumptions. In Brzozowski’s reflection, returns to the 18th century provide with opportunities to question for the roots of modernity and for the sources of the (negative) stances contemporary to him. The returns also co-create, which the author of the paper tries to prove, the cultural diagnoses and projects put forward by Brzozowski, as well as support the ethical conceptions.
On the Short Story “Ad Leones!” once again
The article touches the problem of Venetian painting in such Cyprian Norwid’s pieces as Menego, Salon Paryski 1881 (Paris Salon 1881) and the short story “Ad leones!.” When it comes to the origin of the second piece, he author of the paper finds the opinions by Theophile Gautier particularly valuable, especially those of them which refer to the issue of Venetian painting and the 19th c. continuators of the tradition.
Philippe Beauassant’s book Passages, de la Renaissance au Baroque (Passages. From the Renaissance to Baroque), the reading of which accompanied the author while producing the paper, allows to look at the consensus recorded in research tradition that the greyhound bitch accompanying the red-bearded sculptor best attests the virtues of the main character of “Ad leones!.” An effect of such readings is, according to the author of the paper, the opinion expressed by Dariusz Pniewski that “the sculptor was a few times named red-bearded and, which is equally important and even most important, he is accompanied by a dog, a greyhound.” It is for that reason that the researcher’s observations about Norwid’s attitude to Venetian colorism, though valuable, prove insufficient. The author of the paper attempts to reverse the tendency found in research in “Ad leones!,” trying to reach for the possible genesis of red-bearded sculptor’s creation.
Employing this approach, the context of Venetian painting in the short story is extended by a possible iconographic inspiration as well as by a problem of mannerism (in its historical perspective) seen as a trend in the decline of the Renaissance, anticipating, in Norwid’s view, the tendencies in the art of his days. “Ad leones!,” written nearly at the end of the poet’s creativity, gains a double, symbolic frame of reference: Norwid’s reflection on the status of the artist, his predispositions and moral stance become also a view which embraces not only the 19th c., but also the end of the Renaissance.
Introduction, edited and translated by Filip Mazurkiewicz
Theodor Westrin’s study was published in 1904 and is presumably an answer to Henryk Sienkiewicz’s growing international fame crowned by the Nobel Prize the writer was awarded with in 1905. Westrin gives a survey of Swedish historical sources referring to the siege of Jasna Góra Monastery, and then compares them with the Polish accounts on the subject, primarily with Abbot Augustyn Kordecki’s Nowa Gigantomachia (New Gigantomachia). Thus the reader finds here many protagonists well known from Sienkiewicz’s Potop (Deluge); apart from Kordecki, also General Buchard Müller, Count Jan Weyhard Wrzeszczowicz, Marshall Arvid Wittenberg, and ultimately the kings—the Polish and the Swedish. One of the main myths of Polish history debugs here, while many elements of the accounts of the siege to which we got accustomed or which we regard as trustworthy became half- or untrue.
On the Reception of Two Novels
The article describes the figure and literary output of Malwina Meyersonowa, the first Lublin woman writer of Jewish origin writing in Polish. The person beyond measure deserves attention. This woman of Lublin 19th century intellectual elite, mother of a poetess Franciszka Arnsztajnowa and a philosopher Emil Meyerson, is an authoress of two novels in which she touches the problems of Jewish people contemporary life. It may be argued that in this respect she was a predecessor of Eliza Orzeszkowa’s novels on the same topic. The sources of Meyersonowa’s creativity, connected to the idea of assimilation, emancipation, and the Jewish struggle to escape from the centuries-old isolation, can be located in the Haskalah movement. Meyersonowa was also a translator; her two translations from the German have remained. Her patriotic and social activity as well as many a year actions aimed at propagating education among the Jewish society complete the woman writer’s artistic achievements.
The article is a biographical-genealogical complement to life and activity of Julian Gaudenty Kaliszewski, a Warsaw publicist, author of controversial paraliterary texts, who was active in the years 1868–1888. The regained certificates, especially these of the writer’s birth and death, of his parents’ wedding and their deaths, of his siblings’ deaths, dwelling places, as well as minor corrections of Dobrosława Świerczyńska’s key publications allow to complete the blanks in the writer’s biography and to introduce a few new conclusions.
Review: Marek Troszyński, Alchemia rękopisu. „Samuel Zborowski” Juliusza Słowackiego. Warszawa 2017. „Filologia XXI”
The review contains an investigation into Marek Troszyński’s innovatory book Alchemia rękopisu. “Samuel Zborowski” Juliusza Słowackiego (Alchemy of a Manuscript. Juliusz Słowacki’s “Samuel Zborowski”, Warsaw 2017) which is composed of a documentary edition of Słowacki’s drama manuscript and a textological reflection connected with, inter alia, the publishing traditions of the poet’s mystical Work, his poetics and writing customs. The reviewer describes the assumptions of the manuscript edition of Samuel Zborowski suggested by Troszyński—in many points different from the text known from the erstwhile editions—and the most fundamental values of this publication against the background of the presently observed “return to the sources” of romantic literature, especially interest in drafts, as well as in the context of the developmental tendencies of contemporary editing. She also attempts to evaluate the adopted editorial solutions, ingenious and brave from the stance of a mixed competence receiver.
Review: Wołodymyr Hnatiuk, Ukrajinśko-polśka prawobereżna romantyczna literatura. Wybrani praci. Hołownyj redaktor i uporiadnyk Rostysław Radyszewśkyj. Kyjiw 2009. „Kyjiwśki Połonistyczni Studiji”. Tom 11
The review discusses a volume of selected papers by a Ukrainian Volodymyr Hnatiuk, Polish literature scholar and comparatist of the Inter-war Years. As based on archive sources and analyses of texts by Romantic Ukrainophiles, the researcher formulates his own conception of “Ukrainian school” literary heritage in the Polish Romanticism seen as a Romantic Polish-Ukrainian literature. He investigates the development and fall of the 19th c. Ukrainophile movement, marking certain analogies with the Provençal movement. The publication in question contains Hnatiuk’s hardly accessible papers and his postdoctoral dissertation, the latter of which develops the aforementioned conception.
Review: Marek Kwapiszewski, Od marksizmu dogmatycznego do humanistyki rozumiejącej. Badania nad romantyzmem w IBL PAN w latach 1948–1989. Warszawa 2016
The review discusses Marek Kwapiszewski’s (1946–2017) book Od marksizmu dogmatycznego do humanistyki rozumiejącej. Badania nad romantyzmem w IBL PAN w latach 1948–1989 (From Dogmatic Marxism to the Humanities of Understanding. Research in Romanticism at The Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences between the Years 1948–1989 <Warsaw 2016>). This book is devoted to studies in the literature of Polish and European Romanticism conducted in the Polish People’s Republic in the leading research centre which between the years 1946–1989 was The Institute of Literary Research of the Polish Academy of Sciences.
Review: Ekonomiczne teorie literatury. Pod redakcją Michała Kłosińskiego i Pawła Tomczoka. Katowice 2017. „Ekonomia Literatury”. [T.] 1. – Ekonomie w literaturze i kulturze. Pod redakcją Borysa Cymbrowskiego i Pawła Tomczoka. Katowice 2017. „Ekonomia Literatury”. [T.] 2. – Literackie ekonomie. Pod redakcją Pawła Wolskiego i Pawła Tomczoka. Katowice 2017. „Ekonomia Literatury”. [T.] 3. – Ekonomia w badaniach literackich. Zagadnienia teoretyczne. Pod redakcją Łukasza Milenkowicza i Pawła Tomczoka. Katowice 2017. „Ekonomia Literatury”. [T.] 4. – Paweł Tomczok, Literacki kapitalizm. Obrazy abstrakcji ekonomicznych w literaturze polskiej drugiej połowy XIX wieku. Katowice 2018. „Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Śląskiego w Katowicach”. Nr 3694
The paper discusses four collective books from the series “Ekonomia Literatury” (“Economy of Literature”): Ekonomiczne teorie literatury (Economic Literary Theories); Ekonomie w literaturze i kulturze (Economies in Literature and Culture); Literackie ekonomie (Literary Economies); Ekonomia w badaniach literackich. Zagadnienia teoretyczne (Economy in Literary Studies. Theoretical Problems) published in 2017 by “Ulucz” and Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Śląskiego (The University of Silesia Press), as well as Paweł Tomczok’s monograph Literacki kapitalizm. Obrazy abstrakcji ekonomicznych w literaturze polskiej drugiej połowy XIX wieku (Literary Capitalism. Images of Economic Abstractions in the Second Half of the 19th c. Polish Literature) issued by the same publishing house in 2018. The reviewer looks at the place of the publications on the map of the new interpretive and methodological proposals and makes an attempt to define their role in “regaining” Marxism as a fruitful and creative trend in the Polish research in literature, culture and society.
Review: Masculinities and Literary Studies. Intersections and New Directions. Edited by Joseph M. Armengol, Marta Bosch-Vilarrubias, Àngels Carabí and Teresa Requena-Pelegrí. New York 2017. „Routledge Advances in Feminist Studies and Intersectionality”. [T.] 22
The reviewer discusses the book entitled Masculinities and Literary Studies. Intersections and New Directions devoted to the connections between the critical studies in males, masculinity and literary studies. He reconstructs the position of masculinity research at the crossroads of social sciences and the humanities. As based on the latest publications, he points at the crises found within their scope and at the developmental potential. The volume in question finds its place in a theoretical base and points at new spheres of investigations within the framework of literary studies and research in masculinity.
The reminiscence is devoted to professor Danuta Halina Dąbrowska, a literary historian, literary critic and academic lecturer, who through her professional career was affiliated to University of Szczecin. Her achievements comprise many scholarly papers in Polish Romanticism literary culture, and especially its 20th and 21st c. continuations.